Cyber Security: What To Learn First For Beginners

Cyber Security

The world today is more connected than ever before. With the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, and the increasing use of smartphones, the need for Cyber Security has never been more urgent. Cyber Security is the practice of protecting devices, networks, and sensitive information from unauthorized access, theft, and damage.

For beginners who are interested in pursuing a career in cybersecurity, it can be overwhelming to know where to start. In this article, we will explore the basics of cybersecurity and the types of cybersecurity that beginners should focus on.

What is Cyber Security?

Cyber security refers to the protection of computer systems, networks, and devices from theft, damage, or unauthorized access. This involves implementing various measures, such as firewalls, encryption, and access controls, to prevent cyber attacks.

Cyber attacks can take many forms, including viruses and malware, phishing attacks, ransomware attacks, and social engineering attacks. These attacks can be carried out through various means, such as email, instant messaging, and social media.

Why is Cyber Security Important?

Cybersecurity is important for several reasons:

Protecting Personal and Professional Information

Cyber security helps to protect personal and professional information from theft, damage, or unauthorized access. This includes sensitive data such as credit card numbers, social security numbers, and intellectual property.

Preventing Financial Loss

Cyber attacks can cause significant financial losses for individuals and organizations. For example, a ransomware attack can result in the loss of access to critical data and require payment of a ransom to regain access.

Maintaining Business Continuity

Cyber attacks can disrupt business operations, leading to lost productivity and revenue. By implementing strong cyber security measures, organizations can help to ensure business continuity even in the event of a cyber attack.

Complying with Regulations

Many industries are subject to regulations related to data protection, such as HIPAA for healthcare organizations or PCI DSS for payment card processors. By implementing strong cyber security measures, organizations can ensure compliance with these regulations.

What Should You Learn Before Cyber Security?

Before diving into the world of cybersecurity, it is crucial to have a strong foundation in IT fundamentals. IT fundamentals encompass various categories and areas, such as hardware, software, networking, and applications. Hardware includes the physical components of computers and computing devices, while software refers to the suite of tools and data that tell the computer how to work, including operating systems, software, and applications.

You must have an idea about IT fundamentals terms before getting into Cyber security:

IT Fundamentals

IT Fundamentals is a term used to describe the basic concepts and principles of information technology. This includes understanding the hardware and software components of computer systems, networking, operating systems, databases, and security. Let’s see the key concepts of IT Fundamentals and why it is essential for anyone who wants to pursue a career in cyber technology.

Key Concepts of IT Fundamentals

  • Hardware and Software Components At the core of any computer system are the hardware and software components. The hardware includes the physical components of the computer, such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, hard disk drive, and input/output devices. The software includes the operating system, applications, and programming languages.
  • Networking Networking is the process of connecting two or more devices together to share resources and data. The internet is the most prominent example of networking, but local networks can also be used in a variety of applications. Understanding the basics of networking, including IP addressing, routing, and protocols, is critical for anyone who wants to work in network administration, cybersecurity, or cloud computing.
  • Operating Systems An operating system (OS) is the software that controls the hardware components of a computer system. It manages the memory, processing power, and input/output devices. Examples of operating systems include Windows, macOS, and Linux.
  • Databases A database is a collection of organized data that can be accessed and manipulated by computer systems. Examples of databases include MySQL, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server.
  • Security Security is a critical component of IT Fundamentals. Understanding how to secure computer systems and data is essential for anyone who wants to work in cybersecurity.

Types of Cyber Security Protections

There are different types of cybersecurity protections that beginners should be familiar with. These include:

1. Network Security:

Network security involves securing the network infrastructure and preventing unauthorized access to networks. Beginners should learn the basics of firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and encryption protocols to safeguard networks from external attacks.

2. Application Security:

Application security focuses on securing software applications from external threats. Beginners should learn the basics of secure coding practices, vulnerability scanning, and penetration testing to identify and address potential security risks in applications.

3. Information Security:

Information security involves protecting sensitive data from unauthorized access, theft, and damage. Beginners should learn the basics of data encryption, access control mechanisms, and data backup and recovery strategies to safeguard sensitive information.

4. Cloud Security:

Cloud security involves securing data and applications that are hosted in the cloud. Beginners should learn the basics of cloud security best practices, such as secure configuration, identity and access management, and data protection to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data in the cloud.

Where You Can Learn Cyber Security Courses?

There are hundreds of resources out there where you can learn Cyber Security, both free and affordable.

Cyber Security Free Courses

Cyber Security Paid Courses

Common Cyber Security Risks to Look Out For

Common Cyber Security Risks to Look Out For

In addition to understanding the types of cybersecurity protections, beginners should also be aware of common cybersecurity risks. These include:

  • Malware: Malware is any software designed to harm a computer system, steal data, or gain unauthorized access to a network.
  • Phishing: Phishing is a type of social engineering attack where attackers use emails or messages to trick users into revealing sensitive information or downloading malware.
  • Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks: DoS attacks are aimed at making a network or website unavailable by overwhelming it with traffic.
  • Insider Threats: Insider threats are caused by employees or contractors who intentionally or unintentionally cause harm to the organization’s information security.
  • Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs): APTs are targeted attacks on specific organizations or individuals that are carried out over a long period of time.

Basics of Network and Device Security

Network and device security are essential components of cybersecurity. Beginners should learn the following basics:

  • Keeping software and operating systems up to date with the latest security patches.
  • Using strong passwords or passphrases and implementing multi-factor authentication.
  • Configuring firewalls and intrusion detection systems to monitor network traffic.
  • Implementing access control mechanisms to limit access to sensitive data and systems.

Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing

Ethical hacking and penetration testing are essential skills for beginners in cybersecurity. Ethical hackers test systems and networks to identify potential vulnerabilities and security weaknesses. Beginners should learn the following skills:

  • Conducting vulnerability assessments and penetration testing to identify security risks.
  • Using popular hacking tools like Metasploit and Nmap.
  • Understanding various types of attacks, including SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS).

The Importance of Employee Education & Training

Employees play a crucial role in maintaining a secure organization. Beginner cybersecurity professionals should learn about the importance of employee education and training. This includes:

  • Raising awareness about cyber threats and best practices for information security.
  • Implementing security policies and procedures to minimize the risk of human error.
  • Providing regular training to employees to ensure they stay up to date with the latest security best practices.

How to Identify Cyber Threats

Beginners should learn how to identify cyber threats to minimize the risk of attacks. This includes:

  • Understanding the most common types of cyber threats, including malware and phishing attacks.
  • Monitoring network traffic and system logs for suspicious activity.
  • Conducting regular vulnerability assessments and penetration testing to identify potential security risks.

Best Practices for Data Protection

Data protection is essential to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information. Beginners should learn the following best practices:

  • Encrypting sensitive data both at rest and in transit.
  • Implementing access control mechanisms to limit access to sensitive data.
  • Regularly backing up data to prevent data loss.

Developing Cyber Security Strategies

Beginners should learn how to develop cyber security strategies that are aligned with organizational goals and objectives. This includes:

  • Conducting risk assessments to identify potential security risks.
  • Developing and implementing security policies and procedures.
  • Establishing incident response plans to minimize the impact of cyber attacks.

Tips for Training Staff on Cyber Security

Training staff on cyber security is essential to maintain a secure organization. Beginners should learn the following tips:

  • Providing regular training to employees to ensure they stay up to date with the latest security best practices.
  • Conducting simulated phishing attacks to raise awareness about cyber threats.
  • Creating a culture of security where employees understand the importance of information security.


In conclusion, cybersecurity is a complex field that requires a combination of technical skills, knowledge, and experience. Beginners should focus on understanding the types of cyber security protections, common risks, basics of network and device security, ethical hacking and penetration testing, employee education and training, how to identify cyber threats, best practices for data protection, developing cyber security strategies, and tips for training staff on cyber security. With a solid foundation in these areas, beginners can begin to build their expertise in the field and work towards becoming cybersecurity professionals.


To improve network and device security, you can implement various measures, such as installing antivirus software, updating software and operating systems regularly, using strong passwords and two-factor authentication, and restricting access to sensitive data.

To develop a cyber security strategy, you should assess the risks and threats facing your organization, identify the assets that need protection, develop policies and procedures to mitigate those risks, and regularly review and update your strategy to stay up to date with evolving threats.

There are many types of cyber security, including network security, application security, information security, operational security, and disaster recovery/business continuity planning.

Read Also: How To Become A Hacker Guide For Beginners

By Rana J.

I am Rana Junaid, a technology specialist with a wealth of knowledge and experience in the field. I am a guide for businesses and individuals looking to improve their online presence. I regularly share my expertise through this blog, social media, and speaking engagements.

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